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How Africa can solve Its insecurity challenges using technology

Insecurity is one of the major challenges facing Nigeria in particular and the African continent as a whole. From Nigeria to Mali, Somalia to Mozambique, the continent has seen a slew of gruesome acts of murder directed against civilians. Insecurity has become such a danger on the continent, and according to global risk consultant Verisk, Maplecroft, by the year 2020, seven of the top 10 countries in the world in terms of terrorist risk will be in Africa.

Terrorist groups in Nigeria, such as Boko Haram, have developed into a monster that security agencies seem unable to cope with in terms of its numerous manifestations, including bombing, kidnapping/hostage taking, property damage, and fear installation, to mention a few. Boko Haram’s operations include the murder of at least 70 people and the kidnapping of others in the Jere Local Government Area of Borno State on November 28, 2020. Shots were fired at a UN Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) plane in Damasak, Borno State, on July 2, 2020, and five relief workers were killed on July 22, 2020, including officials from Action Against Hunger, the International Rescue Committee, the REACH program, and the Borno State Emergency Management Agency.

The activities of this group have displaced about 3.2 million people, including over 2.9 million IDPs in northeastern Nigeria. Attacks have included coordinated armed assaults, rocket attacks, killings, abduction, the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), bombings (including by child and female bombers), car explosives, and arson. The use of military uniforms and vehicles as a means of approaching the objective target has been used.

In March 2015, Abubakar Shekau, Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna, and Lidda’Awati Wal-Jihad declared allegiance to the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, formerly known as Al-Qaida in Iraq, and renamed the organization Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP), giving birth to yet another terrorist group in Nigeria and exacerbating the country’s already dire security situation. The group attacked two military bases in Marte and Kirenowa, near the Borno state capital Maiduguri, Nigeria, in June 2019.

On May 2019, the group attacked a military base in Gubio, north of Maiduguri, Nigeria, killing at least three Nigerian soldiers; and in December 2018, the group carried out a series of attacks in Gubio, north of Maiduguri, Nigeria, killing at least three soldiers.

In Mali, 43,752 people are reportedly refugees, while about 287,496 people are internally displaced, due to insecurity and terrorism caused by the Mali war.

In Somalia, Al-Shabaab was responsible for 503 deaths in 2019, accounting for 88%of all deaths. Al-Shabaab continued to attack citizens and businesses with explosives, as well as assassinating prominent government politicians. Civilians were responsible for 36% of the terrorist deaths linked to the organization.

In Mozambique, the militant Islamist organization Al-Shabaab launched an attack on police stations, local government institutions, and civilians in the district of Mocmboa da Praia in Cabo Delgado province three years ago, signalling the commencement of a violent conflict. This catastrophe also marked the end of the Southern African Development Community’s (SADC) ideal of unhindered peace and stability.

Technology has repeatedly shown to be a formidable double-edged sword capable of both overwhelming good and devastating evil, depending on the user’s talents and values in harnessing its energies in one or both ways. ICTs, according to the World Bank, are the hardware, software, networks, and media used to gather, store, process, transmit, and present information (voice, data, text, and images), as well as related services. ICT can be classified into two categories, according to the World Bank: ICI and IT. Physical telecommunications systems and networks are referred to as information and communication infrastructure (ICI) (cellar, broadcast, cable, satellite, postal).

Africa should not be an exception in using technology to provide solutions to its security, personal, social, and industrial concerns.



Drone also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

They are used for security surveillance and intelligence gathering. It is a miniature plane that can fly without the assistance of a human pilot and has self-contained vehicles that can transport cameras, sensors, communication gear, and other payloads. Drones have recently been regarded as the most effective means of gathering intelligence, aerial surveillance, and security monitoring. Drones can be used to look into potential security risks that have been discovered by fixed camera placements around roads, crossroads, and building perimeters.

Without the use of drones, personnel will have to undertake these investigations on the ground, which will take longer and put the responding individual(s) in danger. Emergency responders are increasingly turning to unmanned aerial imaging to assess crucial situations and help them decide on the best course of action. Traffic accidents, fires, and other natural calamities are examples of this. Drones can access a situation in a fraction of the time it takes human employees, and they can often return data and photos that are crucial in determining whether or not a more sophisticated response is required.



CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television)

CCTV surveillance systems have advanced tremendously in the previous decade, not just in terms of individual capabilities, but also in terms of their capacity to interface with other security equipment. According to industry experts, CCTV systems may be used in three ways: as a deterrent, for forensic purposes, and as an interdictive device. 

Some of the uses of CCTV are the Intelligent video algorithms, such as advanced motion detection, which can detect strange walking patterns and warn a guard to keep an eye on a specific video screen. Thing-recognition algorithms can identify someone who might merely be idle, or even a briefcase or other suspicious object that is placed somewhere it shouldn’t be. Again, the system can send an alert to a monitoring guard, who can then take appropriate action. Facial recognition is the most complex, intelligent video algorithm. Most experts believe, however, that using this technology as an effective tool in the commercial sector will take several years.

Encrypted Messaging App

Encrypted instant messaging protects your privacy and security by ensuring that only the recipient of your messages may read them. Any third party intercepting the conversations will be unable to read them due to the powerful encryption technologies incorporated into the messaging apps. 

Hundreds of alleged criminals were tricked into using an encrypted messaging software called Anom, which was secretly controlled by the FBI, according to law enforcement officials throughout the world on Tuesday 8 of June 2021. Law enforcement sources said that users had flocked to the app after other encrypted chat platforms, such as EncroChat, had been shut down by authorities. Anom came pre-installed on phones with limited capabilities that were bought on the illicit market.

GPS Driver’s License

It is one of the world’s most rapidly developing technologies. A GPS tracking unit is a device that uses the Global Positioning System to identify and record the precise location of a car, person or other items to which it is attached. The recorded position data can be retained in the tracking unit or sent to a central location database or an internet-connected computer through a cellular (GPRS), radio, or satellite modem incorporated in the device. To address some of its inherent security issues, most developed governments have focused on GPS technologies.

Explosive Device Detectors

The creation of detecting systems with high-detection-effectiveness, that can be deployed in a wide range of IEDs is a major challenge. An Improvised Explosive Device (IED) is a non-standard (homemade) or professional detonator used in an explosive device.

In contrast, an Improvised Explosive (IE) might be any chemical or combination capable of triggering an explosive reaction. There are two types of explosive detection techniques: bulk explosive detection and trace explosive detection. Bulk detection is the process of examining pictures produced by X-ray scanners or similar equipment to identify a macroscopic amount of explosive material. In trace detection, the explosive is detected by chemical identification of minute traces of the volatile substance. These residues can be used as a vapour or as particles.

The existing security situation in Africa is intolerable to the African people. A lot can be performed and monitored with the newest technological breakthroughs and applications all over the world, such as employing CCTV to monitor movement and images of what is going on in a particular location. National identification can also be used to manage and know the number of people who live in a certain place, where every member of society must be individually identifiable and traceable.

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